166,677 species and infraspecific names are in the database, 22,910 images, 64,473 bibliographic items, 504,407 distributional records.

Chara connivens Salzmann ex A.Braun 1835

Publication details
Chara connivens Salzmann ex A.Braun 1835: 73

Published in: Braun, A. (1835). Übersicht der genauer bekannten Chara-Arten. Flora 18: 49-73.

Publication date: “28. Januar 1835”

Type species
The type species (lectotype) of the genus Chara is Chara vulgaris Linnaeus.

Status of name
This name is of an entity that is currently accepted taxonomically.

Type information
Type locality: "Tanger" [Tangiers, Morocco] (Braun 1835: 73). Neotype: Salzmann; PC (Wood & Imahori 1965: 177). Notes: Oriignal material probably destroyed. Neotype: [per R.D. Wood, Aug. 28, 1956: ref Wood 1965: 177, spec. c] Herbier Laboratoire de Cryptogamie, (PC) . Tanger, Salzmann (Ahmann et al., 2012: 361).

Infrageneric classification
Subgenus Chara Section Grovesia

Homotypic Synonym(s)
Chara globularis f. connivens (A.Braun) R.D.Wood 1962

Heterotypic Synonym(s)
Chara galioides var. duriaei A.Braun 1850
Chara concinna Durieu 1859
Chara duriaei (A.Braun) A.Braun 1868
Chara arcuatifolia Vilhelm 1928
Chara connivesns f. brevifolia Vilhelm 1930
Chara connivens var. heteromorpha F.S.Han & C.L.Chen 1978

Habitat notes
Brackish water and freshwater (Urbiniak & Blazencic 2012). - (2 Oct 2012) - G.M. Guiry

General environment
This is a brackish species.

Common names

(as Chara connivens Salzmann ex A.Braun)
English: Convergent Stonewort (Stewart & Church 1992).

Swedish: Tuvsträfse (Tolstoy & Österlund 2003).

The plants are mostly small, up to 15 cm long and green. The axis is to 500 m broad and usually not encrusted. The branchlets are 6-10 and strongly incurved (connivent), and each branchlet have 8-10 segments. The stem cortex is triplostichous, isostichous. The spine cells and the stipulodes are papillous. The plant is dioecious. The gametangia are found at the 1-4 lowest branchlet nodes. The oogonium is up to 1.1 mm long. The oospores are dark brown to black. The antheridia are solitary, red and up to 1 mm in diameter.

Chara connivens is found in calcareous waters or in slightly brackish water. It grows on marl or sand bottom down to 2 m. In the Baltic Sea the species is found in water with salinity between 3 and 9 PSU. It is normally summer annual. Fertile plants are found in Sweden, in 1950 both female and male plants, and in 1990 only female plants. There is no information from this area about hibernation and germination of the species.

Detailed distribution with sources (Click to Load)

Detailed conservation status with sources
(as Chara connivens Salzmann ex A.Braun)
Vulnerable: (Stewart & Church 1992), (Data Deficient: (Stewart & Church 1992)

Key references
Ahmadi, A., Sheidai, A.M., H. Riahi, H. & Van Raam, J.C. (2012). Some Charophytes (Characeae, Charophyta) from central and western of Iran including Chara kohrangiana species nova. Cryptogamie Algologie 33(4): 359-390. [in English]

Arbeitsgruppe Armleuchteralgen Deutschland (Becker, R., Blindow, I., Doege, A., Franke, T., Gregor, T., Hamann, U., Jäger, D., Jorda, C., Kabus, T., Korsch, H., Korte, E., Kusber, W.-H., Pätzold, Raabe, U., Schubert, H., Teppke, M., van der Weyer K., Wolff, P.) (2015 '2016'). Beschreibung der Characeen-Arten Deutschlands. In: Armleuchteralgen. Die Characeen Deutschlands. (Arbeitsgruppe Characeen Deutschlands Lehrstuhl für Ökologie der Universität Rostock Eds), pp. 209-572. Berlin & Heidelberg: Springer-Verlag.

Borisova, O.V. (2015 '2014'). Charales. In: Algae of Ukraine: diversity, nomenclature, taxonomy, ecology and geography. Volume 4: Charophyta. (Tsarenko, P.M., Wasser, S.P. & Nevo, E. Eds), pp. 454-465. Ruggell: Koeltz Scientific Books.

Bryant, J.A. & Stewart, N.F. (2011). Phylum Chlorophyta. Order Charales. In: The freshwater algal flora of the British Isles. An identification guide to freshwater and terrestrial algae. Second edition. (John, D.M., Whitton, B.A. & Brook, A.J. Eds), pp. 742-765. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Caisová, L. & Gabka, M. (2009). Charophytes (Characeae, Charophyta) in the Czech Republic: taxonomy, autecology and distribution. Fottea 9(1): 1-43.

Cirujano, S, Cambra, J., Sánchez Castillo, P.M., Meco, A. & Flor Arnau, N. (2008). Flora ibérica algas continentales. Carófitos (Characeae). pp. [1]-132, 125 figs. Madrid: Real Jardín Botánico.

Hy, F. (1913). Les Characées de France. Bulletin de la Société Botanique de France 60 (Mémoires 26): 1-47, pls. I-III.

Langangen, A. (2007). Charophytes of the Nordic countries. pp. [1]-102, many figs and maps. Oslo: Saeculum ANS.

Moore, J.A. (1986). Charophytes of Great Britain and Ireland. B.S.B.I. Handbook No. 5. Illustrated by Margaret Tebbs. Distribution maps prepared by Dorothy Green. pp. [i-ii], 1-140, 26 figs, 17 maps. London: Botanical Society of the British Isles.

Muller, S, D., Rhazi, L. & Soulie-Märsche, I. (2017). Diversity and distribution of Characeae in the Maghreb (Algeria, Morocco, Tunisia). Crytogamie Algologie 38(3): 201-251.

Schneider, S.C., Rodrigues, A., Moe, T.F. & Ballot, A. (2015). DNA barcoding the genus Chara: molecular evidence recovers fewer taxa than the classical morphological approach. Journal of Phycology 51(2): 367-380.

Schories, D., Selig, U. & Schubert, H. (2009). Species and synonym list of the German marine macroalgae based on historical and recent records. Rostocker Meeresbiologische Beiträge 21: 7-135.

Urbaniak, J. & Gabka, M. (2014). Polish Charophytes. An illustrated guide to identification. pp. [1]-120, incl. 34 pls. Wroclaw: Uniwersytet Przyrodniczy we Wroclawiu.

Created: 11 April 2002 by M.D. Guiry

Verified by: 05 May 2020 by M.D. Guiry

Accesses: This record has been accessed by users 1866 times since it was created.

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(Please note: only references with the binomials in the title are included. The information is from the Literature database.)

Gil-Rodríguez, M.C., Beltrán Tejera, E. & Wildpret de la Torre, W. (1982). Chara connivens Salzm. ex Braun, un nuevo taxon para la flora ficologica de las Islas Canarias. Vieraea 11: 51-56.
Groves, H. & Groves, J. (1878). Chara connivens, 'Salzm., A. Braun'. Journal of Botany 16: 120.
Luther, H. (1979). Chara connivens in the Baltic Sea area. Annals of Botany, Fennici 16: 141-150.
Romanov, R.E. (2022). Typification of Chara connivens Salzmann ex A.Braun f. brevifolia Vilhelm, C. crinita Wallroth and C. glomerulifera Ruprecht and clarification of conflicting species concepts for C. arcuatifolia Vilhelm (Charales, Charophyceae). Notulae Algarum 223: 1-4, no figs.

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Cite this record as:
M.D. Guiry in Guiry, M.D. & Guiry, G.M. 2022. AlgaeBase. World-wide electronic publication, National University of Ireland, Galway. http://www.algaebase.org; searched on 07 July 2022.

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