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Chara rudis (A.Braun) Leonhardi, nom. illeg. 1863

Empire Eukaryota
Kingdom Plantae
Subkingdom Viridiplantae
Infrakingdom Streptophyta infrakingdom
Phylum Charophyta
Class Charophyceae
Order Charales
Family Characeae
Tribe Chareae
Genus Chara


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Chara rudis (A.Braun) Leonhardi
Double opposed spine cells. Lunan Lakes Scotland.. 01 Aug 2008. © C.F.Carter (chris.carter@6cvw.freeuk.com).


Sarcodia palmata Sonder

Chara rudis (A.Braun) Leonhardi Double opposed spine cells. Lunan Lakes Scotland.
© C.F.Carter (chris.carter@6cvw.freeuk.com)

Publication details
Chara rudis (A.Braun) Leonhardi 1863: 163, nom. illeg.

Published in: Leonhardi, H.F. v[on] (1863). Die bisher bekannten Oesterreichischen Armleuchter-Gewächse besprochen von morphogenetischen Standpuncte. Sitzungsberichte Verhandlungen des naturforschenden Vereines in Brünn 2: 122-224.
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Type species
The type species (lectotype) of the genus Chara is Chara vulgaris Linnaeus.

Status of name
This name is currently regarded as a synonym of Chara subspinosa Ruprecht

Chara hispida var. rudis A.Braun

Type information
Type locality: "In einem Teiche bei Constanz" [Germany] (Braun, Rabenhorst & SStizenberger 1857-1878: no. 4). Lectotype: C. Stizenberger; 1856; NY 9945641 (Wood & Imahori 1965: 145). Notes: NY version of exsiccata chosen as lectotype.

Infrageneric classification
Subgenus Chara Section Hartmania

Origin of species name
Adjective (Latin), wild.

No synonyms are currently included in AlgaeBase.

Nomenclatural notes
Illegitimate: Chara subspinosa Ruprect included in synonymy (Gregor, pers. comm.; Arbeitsgruppe Armleuchteralgen Deutschland 2015: 345). - (22 Mar 2018) - M.D. Guiry

General environment
This is a freshwater species.

Common names

(as Chara rudis (A.Braun) Leonhardi)
English: Rugged Stonewort (Stewart & Church 1992).

Norwegian: Smaltaggkrans (Langangen 2021).

The plants are large and coarse and up to 50 cm long, moderately to strongly encrusted. The axis is up to 1.5 mm broad. The internodes are about 1-2 times as long as the branchlets. The branchlets are 7-9, each with 7-8 segments, the upper 3 are usually ecorticated. The stem cortex is regularly diplostichous and strongly aulacanthous. The spine cells are commonly in pairs, somewhat curved and appressed except in younger internodes which look spiny. Some spine cells are also solitary or three together. The stipulodes are developed in both rows. The bract cells are 5-6, shorter than the oogonium. The species is monoecious. Gametangia are conjoined or sejoined at the four lowest branchlet nodes. The oogonia are solitary or in pairs, to 1.2 mm long. The oospores are dark brown to black. The antheridium is up to 450 m in diameter. Chara rudis resembles C. hispida and has been treated as a variety of this species.

Chara rudis is only found in calcareous lakes, and occasionally in smaller waters, ditches and small pools. The species is found in Chara-lakes and Potamogeton-lakes down to 9 m depth. The sediment is marl-bottom. C. rudis is a perennial species, and in spring new shoots develop from the old plants. Fertile plants are found from May to August, but oospores from the previous year can also be found. New ripe oospores can be found from July.

Detailed distribution with sources (Click to Load)

Detailed conservation status with sources
(as Chara rudis (A.Braun) Leonhardi)
Vulnerable: (Stewart & Church 1992), (Least Concern: (Stewart & Church 1992), (Vulnerable: (Langangen 2021)

Source of current name
Arbeitsgruppe Armleuchteralgen Deutschland (Becker, R., Blindow, I., Doege, A., Franke, T., Gregor, T., Hamann, U., Jäger, D., Jorda, C., Kabus, T., Korsch, H., Korte, E., Kusber, W.-H., Pätzold, Raabe, U., Schubert, H., Teppke, M., van der Weyer K., Wolff, P.) (2015 '2016'). Beschreibung der Characeen-Arten Deutschlands. In: Armleuchteralgen. Die Characeen Deutschlands. (Arbeitsgruppe Characeen Deutschlands Lehrstuhl für Ökologie der Universität Rostock Eds), pp. 209-572. Berlin & Heidelberg: Springer-Verlag.

Key references
Borisova, O.V. (2015 '2014'). Charales. In: Algae of Ukraine: diversity, nomenclature, taxonomy, ecology and geography. Volume 4: Charophyta. (Tsarenko, P.M., Wasser, S.P. & Nevo, E. Eds), pp. 454-465. Ruggell: Koeltz Scientific Books.

Bryant, J.A. & Stewart, N.F. (2011). Phylum Chlorophyta. Order Charales. In: The freshwater algal flora of the British Isles. An identification guide to freshwater and terrestrial algae. Second edition. (John, D.M., Whitton, B.A. & Brook, A.J. Eds), pp. 742-765. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Caisová, L. & Gabka, M. (2009). Charophytes (Characeae, Charophyta) in the Czech Republic: taxonomy, autecology and distribution. Fottea 9(1): 1-43.

Langangen, A. (2007). Charophytes of the Nordic countries. pp. [1]-102, many figs and maps. Oslo: Saeculum ANS.

Schneider, S.C., Rodrigues, A., Moe, T.F. & Ballot, A. (2015). DNA barcoding the genus Chara: molecular evidence recovers fewer taxa than the classical morphological approach. Journal of Phycology 51(2): 367-380.

Urbaniak, J. & Combik, M. (2013). Genetic and morphological data fail to differentiate Chara intermedia from C. baltica, or C. polycantha and C. rudis from C. hispida. European Journal of Phycology 48(3): 253-259.

Urbaniak, J. & Gabka, M. (2014). Polish Charophytes. An illustrated guide to identification. pp. [1]-120, incl. 34 pls. Wroclaw: Uniwersytet Przyrodniczy we Wroclawiu.

Created: 11 April 2002 by M.D. Guiry

Verified by: 05 May 2020 by M.D. Guiry

Accesses: This record has been accessed by users 1410 times since it was created.

Verification of data
Users are responsible for verifying the accuracy of information before use, as noted on the website Content page.

(Please note: only references with the binomials in the title are included. The information is from the Literature database.)

Skurzynski, P. & Bociag, K. (2009). The effect of environmental conditions on the germination of Chara rudis oospores (Characeae, Chlorophyta). Charophytes 1(2): 61-67.
Skurzynski, P. & Bociag, K. (2011). Vegetative propagation of Chara rudis (Characeae, Chlorophyta). Phycologia 50(2): 194-201.
Urbaniak, J. & Combik, M. (2013). Genetic and morphological data fail to differentiate Chara intermedia from C. baltica, or C. polycantha and C. rudis from C. hispida. European Journal of Phycology 48(3): 253-259.

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Citing AlgaeBase
Cite this record as:
M.D. Guiry in Guiry, M.D. & Guiry, G.M. 2022. AlgaeBase. World-wide electronic publication, National University of Ireland, Galway. http://www.algaebase.org; searched on 16 August 2022.

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