Chara virgata Kützing 1834
Chara virgata Kützing Red-cyan anaglyph showing cortex in 3D. Small form. Near Bornais, South Uist, Scotland. Collected by Claudia Ferguson-Smyth.
© C.F.Carter (firstname.lastname@example.org)
Chara virgata Kützing 1834: 705
Published in: Kützing, F. (1834). Beschreibung einiger neuer Arten der Gattung Chara. Flora (Jena) 17: 705-707.
Status of name
This name is of an entity that is currently accepted taxonomically.
Type locality: bei Schleswig [Germany] (Index Nominum Algarum). Holotype?: Pastor Fröhlich; L?
Subgenus Chara Section Grovesia
Origin of species name
Adjective (Latin), twiggy, long and slender or streaked, rod-like (Stearn 1973).
Chara fragilis var. virgata (Kützing) Kützing 1843
Chara fragilis f. virgata (Kützing) Reyes y Prósper 1910
Chara globularis var. virgata (Kützing) R.D.Wood 1962
Chara globularis f. virgata (Kützing) R.D.Wood 1962
Chara delicatula C.Agardh 1824
Chara pilifera C.Agardh 1824
Chara trichodes Kützing 1834
Chara verrucosa H.Itzigsohn nomen prov. 1850
Chara fragilis var. delicatula (C.Agardh) A.Brebisson 1859
Chara fragilis subsp. delicatula (C.Agardh) A.Braun & Nordstedt 1882
Chara lamyana M.Soulat-Ribette 1892
Chara fragilis f. verrucosa (Itzigsohn) W.Migula 1897
Chara globularis var. delicatula (Agardh) K.Imahori 1957
The species is widespread in Europe. It is also reported from India, Japan and North America. In the Nordic countries the species has been found in Finland (Langangen et al. 2002), Sweden (Hasslow 1931, Blindow & Langangen 1995, Blindow 2000), Norway (Langangen 1974, 2007), Denmark 1944), Faroe Islands (Langangen 1996), Iceland and Greenland (Langangen et al. 1996). It is also found in Shetland, Orkney and Scotland (Moore 1986). In Norway the species is found scattered through most of the country, except for central parts of South Norway and parts of the western coast. In North Norway the species is not found in central parts of Finnmark. In Sweden the distribution is not updated here, but it is found in many localities in South Sweden, north to Østersund. In Finland the species has a southern and eastern occurrence, in the central parts of the country the species is missing. The distribution in North Sweden is based on determination of specimens from Stockholm(S) and Uppsala (UPS). In Denmark and Iceland the situation is unclear, as Olsen (1944) and Langangen (1974) include C. virgata in C. globularis. The locality in Iceland is from the herbarium in Akureyri (AMNH). Together with the occurrence in the mainland and the islands north of Scotland, Faroe Islands and Greenland this is the northern border for this species in Europe - (29 Dec 2009) -
This is a marine/freshwater species.
(as Chara virgata Kützing)
Norwegian: Stripekrans (Langangen 2021).
(as Chara globularis var. virgata (Kützing) R.D.Wood)
Swedish: Papillsträfse (Tolstoy & Österlund 2003).
The plants are 3-15 (30) cm high, encrusted or unencrusted and grey to green in colour. The axis is up to 500 µm in diameter. The internodes are 1-3 times longer than the branchlets. The branchlets are 7-8, each with 4-9 segments. The stem cortex is triplostichous, tylacanthous. The spine cells are solitary and papillous. The stipulodes in the upper row are well developed and acute, in lower row they are short to papillous. The bracteoles are 1-2 times as long as the oogonium. The plant is monoecious. The gametangia are conjoined at the three lowest branchlet nodes. The oogonium is up to 1.1 mm long, and up to 700 µm broad. The oospore is black. The antheridium is up to 350 µm in diameter. Multicellular bulbils are often found in this species.
Chara virgata is common in freshwater but is occasionally found in brackish water. It is found in many different types of localities, from large lakes to ditches and streams. The water is from soft to calcareous, and often rich in electrolytes. The species can also tolerate competition from other water plants. It is often found in shallow water, growing on many types of bottom, from peat to marl and sand bottom. This is one of the most common charophytes in the area. Chara virgata is commonly very rich fertile, and such plants can be found from May to late autumn, and ripe oospores which also are frequent are found from July. The species is annual or perennial, depending on the depth of growth. Perennial forms have oospores through the spring
Triplostichous cortex, tylacanthous, stipulodes with long cells in upper row.
Arbeitsgruppe Armleuchteralgen Deutschland (Becker, R., Blindow, I., Doege, A., Franke, T., Gregor, T., Hamann, U., Jäger, D., Jorda, C., Kabus, T., Korsch, H., Korte, E., Kusber, W.-H., Pätzold, Raabe, U., Schubert, H., Teppke, M., van der Weyer K., Wolff, P.) (2015 '2016'). Beschreibung der Characeen-Arten Deutschlands. In: Armleuchteralgen. Die Characeen Deutschlands. (Arbeitsgruppe Characeen Deutschlands Lehrstuhl für Ökologie der Universität Rostock Eds), pp. 209-572. Berlin & Heidelberg: Springer-Verlag.
Auderset, J.D. & Rey-Boissezon, A. (2013). Les Characées de Genève et environs. Distribution et Ecologie. Rapport projet de recherche DGNP-UNIGE Groupe d’Ecologie aqua-tique, Institut Forel et Institut des Sciences l’Environnement, Université de Genève. pp. [i-vii], 1-95, numerous photographs, figures and maps. Genève: Direction Générale de la Nature et du Paysage Rue des Battoirs 7 1205 Genève.
Blümer, C. (2004). Taxonomy and nomenclature. In: Charophytes of the Baltic Sea. (Schubert, H & Blindow, I. Eds), pp. 261-284.
Bryant, J.A. & Stewart, N.F. (2011). Phylum Chlorophyta. Order Charales. In: The freshwater algal flora of the British Isles. An identification guide to freshwater and terrestrial algae. Second edition. (John, D.M., Whitton, B.A. & Brook, A.J. Eds), pp. 742-765. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Bueno, N.C., Prado, J.F., Meurer, T. & Bicudo, C.E.M. (2011). New records of Chara (Chlorophyta, Characeae) for subtropical southern Brazil. Systematic Botany 36(3): 523-541, 13 figs.
Kuczewaki, O. (1906). Morphologische und biologische Untersuchungen an Chara delicatula f. bulbillifera A. BRaun. Beih. Bot. Centralblatt 20: 25-75.
Langangen, A. (2007). Charophytes of the Nordic countries. pp. -102, many figs and maps. Oslo: Saeculum ANS.
Schneider, S.C., Rodrigues, A., Moe, T.F. & Ballot, A. (2015). DNA barcoding the genus Chara: molecular evidence recovers fewer taxa than the classical morphological approach. Journal of Phycology 51(2): 367-380.
Schubert, H & Blindow, I. (2004). Charophytes of the Baltic Sea. pp. [i-iv], 1-326, + pls I-VI. Ruggell: A.R.G. Gantner Verlag Kommanditgesellschaft.
Urbaniak, J. & Gabka, M. (2014). Polish Charophytes. An illustrated guide to identification. pp. -120, incl. 34 pls. Wroclaw: Uniwersytet Przyrodniczy we Wroclawiu.
Created: 11 April 2002 by M.D. Guiry
Verified by: 06 December 2020 by M.D. Guiry
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Cite this record as:
M.D. Guiry in Guiry, M.D. & Guiry, G.M. 2022. AlgaeBase. World-wide electronic publication, National University of Ireland, Galway. http://www.algaebase.org; searched on 09 August 2022.